Behavior Instruction & Support
The West Linn-Wilsonville School District focuses on this guiding question, "How do we create learning communities for the greatest thinkers and most thoughtful people for the world?" The Character Traits honesty, integrity, respect, responsibility, kindness, compassion, and courage are core ethical values that our community believes our children should learn and that all should strive to exemplify. We invest in supporting the moral and performance character development of all of our children as our universal approach. When children are strongly connected to their school community and being nurtured in character education, they work well together and create positive social relationships throughout their world.
Just as in academic learning, some children need additional instruction, support, encouragement, and motivation in the areas of social learning and behavior. We believe children want to do well, and will do so if they can. The principles of Collaborative Problem-Solving support us in thinking through the ways we interact with students who need additional behavioral or social instruction. Here are some of the principles and questions that guide us in providing additional support:
- Encourage strengths - if the student is struggling in one area, is there an area of strength that can be supported?
- Clarify expectations - some students need greater specificity
- Teach expectations - some students need additional practice
- Examine the environment - are there structures that the adults can adapt to help students be more successful?
- Consider what excites or motivates the students and provide more of that
- Do the smallest amount of change for the biggest result
- Take data (starting with the easiest ways to do so) and examine it regularly as you make changes
- Have some school-based supports in place for fairly common areas of need (such as Check-in/Check-out system)
- Provide more intensive, individualized supports as needed
- Individualized supports must be based on an FBA
- Behavior Support Plans (based on FBA) need to be developed with the people who will be implementing them
- Communicate with parents throughout the process
Procedural Guidance for FBAsFunctional Behavior Assessment (FBA)Functional behavioral assessments should be integrated, as appropriate, throughout the process of developing, reviewing and revising a student's IEP when students demonstrate behaviors that impede learning. This will ensure that functional behavioral assessments are conducted appropriately in all situations to address student needs as well as situations in which administrative or legal proceedings may be encountered. The more intensive the presenting behaviors, the more comprehensive the FBA and BSP should be.The key standards for a Functional Behavior Assessment Include:Functional behavior assessments should be implemented as a integrated set of practices throughout the IEP decision- making process
The following information should guide how teams conduct functional behavioral assessments and use the results of such assessments in designing an appropriate educational program for a student with a disability or a student suspected of having a disability. The goal is to ensure that behavioral interventions for students with disabilities are instituted that have the highest likelihood of success, thus creating safe and conducive learning environments.
- Functional behavior assessments identify and measure specific problem behaviors (as opposed to "diagnosing"). The function of a behavior can only be determined by describing and analyzing the student's interactions within his or her environment.
- All functional behavior assessments need to be conducted with the same set of resources and procedures. The nature of the assessment provided must match the level of need demonstrated by the student.
- Functional behavior assessments provide data for the design of behavioral strategies and supports (i.e., intervention programs)
DefinitionFunctional behavior assessment is the process of determining why a student engages in a challenging behavior and how the student's behavior relates to the environment. Functional behavior assessments can provide the team with information to develop a hypothesis as to:
This type of assessment often involves reviewing curriculum, instructional and motivational variables in relation to a student's behavior and/or examining classroom arrangements, individuals present, physical health issues, instructional subject and work demands. (1)
- Why the student engages in the behavior
- When/where the student is most likely to demonstrate the behavior; and
- Situations in which the behavior is least likely to occur.
(1) Functional Behavior Assessment: Policy Development in Light of Emerging Research and Practice. National Association of State directors of Special Education (NASDSE), March 1998.
Components of a Functional Behavior Assessment
A functional behavior assessment should minimally include the following components:
- Identification of the problem behavior
- Definition of the behavior in concrete terms
- Identification of the contextual factors that contribute to the behavior
- Formulation of a hypothesis regarding the general conditions under which a behavior usually occurs and probable consequences that serve to maintain it
Assessment TechniquesA variety of techniques are available to conduct a functional behavior assessment including, but not limited to:
Notification or consent requirements for FBA's
- Indirect assessment (e.g., structured interviews, review of existing evaluation information)
- Direct assessment (e.g., checklists or observing and recording situational factors surrounding the behavior)
- Data analysis (e.g., a comparison and analysis of data to determine whether or not there are patterns associated with the behavior)
After conducting the FBA
- Parents should be notified anytime a functional behavior assessment occurs
- Consent must be obtained if the FBA is going to be used as part of an evaluation
- If a student is suspended for more than 10 days or expelled, the team MUST conduct an FBA if the behavior was not a manifestation of the disability
- The team must develop and implement a behavior support plan (BSP)
- The BSP must specify how the effectiveness of the plan will be evaluated (what data) and when
- The BSP should be frequently reviewed and revised to support the student moving back toward a more independent and successful learning environment.
Procedural Guidance for IEPs
FBA & BSP formsShort Form FBA and Behavior Support Plan (word doc) updated 5/17/17Comprehensive FBA and Behavior Support Plan (word doc) updated 5/17/17Tools for Generating FBA & BSPFunctional Behavior Assessment Checklist (Critical elements to be included in the FBA)Behavior Support Plan Checklist (Critical elements to be included in the BSP)Functional Assessment Tool for Teachers and Staff (Optional: Use this for gathering information that will guide writing the FBA)Assessment of Lagging Skills (Optional: Use this tool for collaborative problem solving)
- The goal of the BSP (the desired behavior or acceptable alternative) should match the Behavior Goal on the IEP
- The BSP should be noted on the Accommodation/Supplemental Services component of the IEP
- The current BSP should be attached to the current IEP tab in ePEP
Restraint and Seclusion Documents:Restraint is only to be used if a student is in imminent danger of hurting self or others AND if less restrictive measures have proved ineffective. For additional information about restraint and seclusion see: http://www.ode.state.or.us/search/page/?=4287WLWV Restraint and Seclusion Incident and Debrief Form (updated 9/7/2017)Discipline: